Bardiya National Park is a conserved area of Nepal which was entrenched in 1988 as Royal Bardia National Park. It extends with an area of 968 km2 (374 sq m), one of the largest and most unruffled wilderness areas of Nepal that lies in Terai area, abutting Eastern Bank of the Karnali River in the Bardiya District. Its Northern limits of the preserved area are separated by the crest of the Siwalik Hills. Whereas the natural boundaries to human settlements are formed in the West part of the Geruwa, a brach of the karnali River and Babai River in the South-East part.
Being together with the adjacent Banke National Park (within an area of 1,437km2) which represents the Tiger Conservation Unit (TUC), Bardia-Banke that enlarge over 2,231 km2 (861 sq m) of alluvial grasslands and subtropical moist deciduous forests. In 1815 Nepal had lost this region to the East India Company through the Sugauli Treaty, till 45 years it was part of the British India and Returned to Neap in 1860 in recognition for supporting the suppression of the Indian Independence movement in 1857. However this area is still called as Naya Muluk with enlarge over an area of 368 km2 (142 sq m) stands as a Royal Hunting Reserve in 1969 and bulletin as Royal Karnali Wildlife Reserve in 1976. It was declared as Royal Wildlife reserve in 1982 that enlarged to include the Babai River valley in 1984. Finally it was bulletin as national park during 1988.
Its 70% of area was covered by the forest within the balance of mixture grassland, Savannah and river in Forest. The flora recorded in the park consist of 839 species of Flora including 173 vascular plant , species consisting 140 decocts, 26 Monocots, Six fern and one Gymnosperm species. A group of Gharials and a Mugger on a sand bank of the karnali River. The wide range of vegetation types in forest and grassland gives us observer 642 faunal species, Karnali-Babi river system, their tributaries and myriads of oxbow lakes which are habitat for 125 recorded species of fish and Mugger crocodiles. As well as the small population of Gharial inhabits of the river such as 23 reptiles and amphibian species can be found in this area. One horned rhinoceros in Bardiya National Park, Bardiya National Park is known as the home of the 53 different mammals including Rhinoceros, wild Elephant, Bengal Tiger, Swamp Deer and Gangetic Dolphin.
Rhinoceros: Translocation of rhinos from Chitwan to Bardiya National Park was started since 1986 with 58 individuals migrated until 2000. Since 1994-2000, hunters have been unsuccessful for poaching rhinos. In April 2000 there were 67 rhinos in the park most of them were inhabitant of Babai Valley. Also in 2006 a survey was carried out in the Babai River Floodplain that exhibited an alarming reduce in the rhino population. Poaching was suspected to be the main cause of its reduction. While, following through the survey (2007-2008) have confirmed that the complete disappearance of Rhinos from Babai Valley.
Two largest elephant’s bulls were spotted for the first time in the park in 1985 and named them as Raja Gaj and Kanchha in 1985. They roamed in the park together and made occasional visits to the females Raja Gaj Stood 11.3ft (3.4m) tall at the shoulder and had a massive body weight. His presence has been compared to that of a mammoth due to his high bi-domed shaped head and his forehead, domes were well-known than other Asian bull Elephants. During 1993 five elephants were seen entering the park and one year later another 16 individual arrived so that its total population become 41 on the basis of 1997 survey. Current checklists include 407 bird species, among them the Bengal florican, white-rumped vulture, peafowl, and bar-headed geese, which are symbolic of the park. Lesser Florican, Silver-eared Mesia and Sarus crane have also been sighted.
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